Conflicts between people and wildlife currently rank among the main threats to conservation in Africa, since residents often end up killing endangered species, such as elephants, during confrontations. Those conflicts have escalated as drought becomes more severe. But efforts to collect alternative sources of water [in Nkolale village] are helping to curb the human-wildlife conflict and to reduce waterborne diseases. The Nkolale community development organisation has built a 100,000-litre underground tank that collects water from a spring deep in the earth. That water is then pumped into an outer tank, where some of it is directed to open wells for wildlife to access and the rest is pumped by gravity over 13km to serve the surrounding villages, schools and health facilities.